Volume 1, Issue 4, September 2013, Page: 165-174
Predictors of Consistent Condom Use among Secondary School Male Students in Mbonge Subdivision of Rural Cameroon
Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang, HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Network, Cameroon, P.O. Box 36, Commonwealth Avenue, Kumba, Southwest region, Cameroon
Received: Jul. 30, 2013;       Published: Aug. 20, 2013
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjph.20130104.11      View  3323      Downloads  163
Correct and consistent condom use during sexual intercourse remains the most effective protection against sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) for sexually active young adults, who are hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This study uses data from secondary school male students in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon, to determine the most significant predictors of consistent condom use, using the main components of the Health Belief Model (HBM). A disproportional, stratified simple random sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of 210 male respondents. A cross-sectional correlational design was adopted, collecting data using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 65.8% reported having ever had sex, of whom only 30.5% reported using condoms consistently. Multinomial logistic regression analysis based on the HBM components showed that perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS (p=0.007; Pseudo R-square=0.223); perceived severity of HIV/AIDS (p=0.000; Pseudo R-square=0.382); perceived benefit of condom use (p=0.005; Pseudo R-square=0.144); perceived condom use self-efficacy (p=0.006; Pseudo R-square=0.223) and socio-demographic variables (p=0.012; Pseudo R-square=0.534), were the most significant predictors of consistent condom use at the level p<0.05. The findings suggest that AIDS education programs to increase condom use for males in rural Cameroon should emphasize these five components of the HBM concurrently. HIV/AIDS education messages that focus on barriers to condom use as a means of inducing and maintaining consistent condom use may be counterproductive.
Consistent Condom Use, Rural Cameroon, Secondary School Male Students, Health Belief Model (HBM), HIV/AIDS
To cite this article
Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang, Predictors of Consistent Condom Use among Secondary School Male Students in Mbonge Subdivision of Rural Cameroon, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 1, No. 4, 2013, pp. 165-174. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20130104.11
UNAIDS, Report on the global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
J. L. Arcand, and E. D. Wouabe, Teacher training and HIV/AIDS prevention in West Africa: Regression discontinuity design evidence from the Cameroon, Health Economics,vol. 19, pp. 36-54, 2010.
J. J. Mosoko, I. B. Macauley, A. B. C. Zoungkanyi, A. Bella, and S. Koulla-Shiro, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and associated factors among specific population subgroups in Cameroon, AIDS and Behavior,vol.13, pp.277-287, 2009.
E. J. Kongnyuy, V. Soskolne, and B, Adler, Hormonal contraception, Sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon, BMC Women’s Health, vol. 8, pp.19, 2008.
UNAIDS, Report on the global AIDS Epidemic, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
UNFPA, Country profiles for population and reproductive health: policy developments and indicators, Cameroon ,pp .26-27, 2005. From:
UNAIDS, Annex 2: HIV and AIDS estimates and data, Geneva, pp. 506-507, 2005.
P. Nyambi, L. Zekeng, H. Kenfack, M. Tongo, A. Nanfack, I. Nkombe, F. Ndonko, J. Shang, S. Burda, H. Mbah, L. Agyingi, P. Zhong, A. Nadas, S. Zolla-Pozner, and M. Marmor, HIV infection in rural villages in Cameroon, J AcqImmunDefSyndr, vol. 31(5), pp. 506-13, 2002.
L. Fonjong, Fostering women’s participation in development through Non-governmental efforts in Cameroon, Geographical Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. 167(3), pp. 223-234, 2001.
J. Neukom, and L. Ashford, Changing youth behaviour through social marketing. Program experience and research findings from Cameroon, Madagascar, and Rwanda, Washington, DC: PRB & PSI, 2003.
R. Van Rossem, and D. Meekers, An evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted social marketing to promote adolescent and young adult reproductive health in Cameroon, AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 12, pp. 383-404, 2000.
UNICEF, Enquête ā indicateurs multiples (MICS) au Cameroon 2000 Yaoundé: Ministere de L’Economicet des Finances, Gouvernement du Cameroun, 2001.
M. Rwenge, Sexual risk behaviours among young people in Bamenda, Cameroon, International Family Planning Perspectives,vol. 26(3), pp. 118-123 & 30, 2000.
W. K. Adih, and C. S. Alexander, Determinants of condom use to prevent HIV infection among Youth in Ghana, Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 24(1), pp. 63-72, 1999.
D. Meekers, and M. Klein, Determinants of condom use among young people in Urban Cameroon, Studies in Family Planning, vol. 33(4), pp. 335-346, 2002.
J. Lugalla, M. Emmelin, A. Mutembei, M. Sima, G. Kwesigabo, J. Killewo, and L. Dahlgren, Social, cultural and sexual behavioral determinants of observed decline in HIV infection trands: Lessons from the Kagera Region, Tazania, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 59, pp. 185-198, 2004.
S. Abdool Karim, Q. Abdool Karim, E. Preston-Whyte, and N. Sankar, Reasons for lack of condom use among high school students, South African Medical Journal, vol. 82, pp.107-110, 1992.
P. Sheeran, C. Abraham, and S. Orbell, Psychosocial correlates of heterosexual condom use: A meta-analysis, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 125, pp. 90-132, 1999.
C. U. Edem, and S. M. Harvey, Use of Health Belief Model to predict condom use among university students in Nigeria, Int. Quart. Comm. Hlth. Educ,vol.15, pp. 3-14, 1995.
K. Basen-Engquist, Psychosocial predictors of "safer sex" behaviours in young adults, AIDS Educ. P,vol.4, pp. 120-134, 1992.
Bureau Central des Recensements et des Etudes de Population, Livre "Rapport de Presentation", Cameroon, 2010.
A.E. Stout, Prenatal care for low income women and the Health Belief Model: a new beginning, Journal of Community Health Nursing, vol. 4(3), pp. 169-180, 1997.
N. Burns, and S.K. Grove, The practice of nursing research: conduct, critique and utilization; 5th edition. St Louis: ELSEVIER, 2005.
H. I. Brink, C. Van der Walt, and G. Van Rensburg, Fundamentals of research methodology for health care professionals; 2nd edition. Cape Town: Juta, 2006.
E. Babbie, The basics of social research; 3rd edition. Toronto: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.
C. Bless, and C. Higson-Smith, Fundamentals of social research methods: an African perspective. 3rd edition. JUTA, 2000.
S. L. Levy, and S. Lemeshow, Sampling of populations : Methodsand applications, 3rd edition, New York: John Wiley& Sons, 1999.
A. Agresti, An Introduction to categorical Data Analysis, New York: Wiley, 2007.
D. W. Hosmer, and S. Lemeshow, Applied Logistic Regression, New York: Wiley and Sons Inc, 2000.
USAID, Country health statistical report, Cameroon, Masimax Resource Inc, John Snow Inc, ORC Macro & Insight Systems Corporation, Washington DC, 2008.
W. K. Nahamya, and C. B. Elangwe, Susceptibility and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among the fishing communities in Uganda: a case of Lake Kioga. A paper presented to the international conference on HIV/AIDS and food and nutrition security, Hilton Hotel, Durban, 2005. From (Accessed on 15/10/2011).
The Alan Guttmacher Institute,Risk and protection: youth and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York and Washington: The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 2004.
N. Pender, C. Murdaugh, M. A. Parsons, Individual models to promote health behaviour. In M, Connon, D Macknight, K, Mortimer & S, Wrocklage (eds), Health promotion in Nursing Practice, pp. 35-66. Now York: Pearson, 2011.
Bartholomew LK, Parcel G, KOK G, Gottlieb NH. Behavior oriented theories used in health promotion. In J, Allegrante, K, Mcleroy (eds). Planning Health Promotion Programs. 2006; 81-135. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
E. E. Tarkang, Factors associated with consistent condom use among senior secondary school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon, Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, vol. 5(6), pp. 214-223, 2013.
L. Bernardi, Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge, behavioural control, and social influence. MPIDR WORKING PAPER WP 2002-029, July 2002: Max-Planck Institute for Demographic Research. From: (accessed on 24/10/2006).
I. M. Rosenstock, The Health Belief Model: explaining health behavior through expectancies: in glanz, Lewis & Rimer (eds): health behavior and health education. San Francisco: Jossey – Bass Publishers, 1990.
G. Groenewold, B. Bruijn, and R. Bilsborrow, Migration of the Health Belief Model (HBM): effects of psychology and migrant network characteristics on emigration intentions on five countries in West Africa and the Mediterranean region. Population association of America 2006 annual meeting.
K. N. Simpson, D. Whipper-Lewis, and P. Mazyck, Economic access to highly active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) and adherence to treatment guidelines for African American medical enrollees with AIDS in South Carolina. AHRQ. Exceed project 2, 2006.
A. Bandura, Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. In P. Norman, C. Abraham, & M, Conner, (Ed), Understanding and changing health behaviour: from health beliefs to self-regulation. (PP.299-339) Amsterdam: Hardwood Academic, 1994.
Browse journals by subject